In the firs chapter Orwell gives his reasons for writing the story and what he hoped it would accomplish it also gives reference to the farm and how it related to the conflicts of the Russian revolution.
The characters settings and the plot were written to describe the social disturbance during that period of time and also to prove that the good nature of true communism can be turned into something atrocious by an idea as simple as greed.
Even worse, they shake hands with the humans and promise to be comrades in the end of the novel ‘Their sole wish, now and in the past, was to live at peace and in normal business relations with their neighbours’.
By using Napoleon, Orwell satirically criticises Stalin’s hypocritical character for trading with anti-Communist countries that were once Russia’s enemies by using the example of Napoleon trading with humans.
Firs and foremost manor farm itself represented Russia with it poor conditions and irresponsible leaders. Jones plays one of those leaders, Nicholas the second.
Jones beat his animals, would forget to feed them, and treats them badly. Marx had a dream of a better Russia and created the doctrine of communism to aid in distribution of wealth, and to bring the people to a place where they would all be equal, but what he didn't realize was that under the wrong rule the good intentions of communism would become corrupt.
Stalin also made the lower class people work even harder than they were under the rule of the Tsar.
Another example of how Orwell satirises the Russian Revolution is through the character Napoleon who did not follow the Animalist principal created by Old Major. After the expulsion of Snowball, Napoleon gains absolute control over the farm and turns into an absolute hypocrite and starts going against Old Major’s teaching of Animalism and the seven commandments that they set themselves.
Through Old Major’s speech Orwell shows the readers a simplified version of the basic tenets of communism which was that the capitalist economic system was seriously flawed and people could live a much better life if they worked for themselves and produced their own food.
Only get rid of Man, and the produce of our labour would be our own. Through this simple speech Old Major shows the main idea of the revolution and how Animalism will benefit the lives of the animals on the farm.