Augmentation Research Papers

Augmentation Research Papers-82
Such processes encompass attention, the formation of knowledge, memory, judgement and evaluation, reasoning and computation, problem solving and decision making, as well as the comprehension and production of language.

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For two decades many alternative definitions of human enhancement have been proposed and discussed (Parens, 1998; Bostrom, 2005; Agar, 2008; Bostrom and Roache, 2008; Moore, 2008; Savulescu and Bostrom, 2009; Cabrera, 2017), a particular bone of contention being the question of whether an intervention that simply attempts to restore function lost due to illness, injury, or disability could still be identified as enhancement.

In this paper, we will focus on a subset of means for human augmentation—neuroscience technologies—and only on one particular area—human cognitive enhancement.

These are important because they may differentially influence both present and future research on (and adoption of) neurotechnologies for human cognitive augmentation: an inferior technology with no significant ethical issues may thrive while a superior technology causing widespread ethical concerns may end up being outlawed. Computer control using human intracortical local field potentials.

Based on the lessons learnt in our analysis and using past trends as predictors of future ones, in section 5 we attempt to forecast the most likely future developments of neuroscience technology and provide informed recommendations for promising future research and exploitation avenues.

Unfortunately, f MRI needs big and expensive equipment for signal acquisition.

For these reasons, despite few attempts to use it for communication (Weiskopf et al., 2004; van der Heiden et al., 2014), it is generally unsuitable for human augmentation applications (van Erp et al., 2012). Finally, based on the lessons learned in our analysis, using past trends and considering other related forecasts, we attempt to forecast the most likely future developments of neuroscience technology for human cognitive augmentation and provide informed recommendations for promising future research and exploitation avenues. Human enhancement refers to a very broad range of techniques and approaches aimed at augmenting body or cognitive functions, through performance-enhancing drugs, prosthetics, medical implants, human-computer teaming, etc., that result in improved characteristics and capabilities, sometimes beyond the existing human range (Moore, 2008). Getting to know you: reputation and trust in a two-person economic exchange. doi: 10.1126/science.1108062 Pub Med Abstract | Cross Ref Full Text | Google Scholar Kotchoubey, B., Schleichert, H., Lutzenberger, W., and Birbaumer, N. A new method for self-regulation of slow cortical potentials in a timed paradigm. One of the main advantages of EEG (Niedermeyer and da Silva, 2005; Luck, 2014) is that it has very good temporal resolution, is relatively inexpensive (compared to other non-invasive recording technologies) and is portable and practical to use, an aspect that is very important when considering the usability outside the lab for cognitive augmentation. f MRI measures brain activity by detecting changes in the blood flow (hemodynamic response) in the brain (Logothetis et al., 2001; Buxton, 2009). “A collaborative BCI approach to autonomous control of a prosthetic limb system,” in IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man and Cybernetics (San Diego, CA), 1479–1482. It has much better spatial resolution than EEG, but temporal resolution is low. Firstly, we survey the main neuroscience technologies for both observing and influencing brain activity, which are necessary ingredients for human cognitive augmentation. We also compare and contrast such technologies, as their individual characteristics (e.g., spatio-temporal resolution, invasiveness, portability, energy requirements, and cost) influence their current and future role in human cognitive augmentation. Thirdly, we briefly review the ethical issues associated with current neuroscience technologies. These are important because they may differentially influence both present and future research on (and adoption of) neurotechnologies for human cognitive augmentation: an inferior technology with no significant ethical issues may thrive while a superior technology causing widespread ethical concerns may end up being outlawed. Pub Med Abstract | Google Scholar Krause, B., and Cohen Kadosh, R. Not all brains are created equal: the relevance of individual differences in responsiveness to transcranial electrical stimulation. Secondly, we chart the state of the art on neurotechnologies for human cognitive augmentation, keeping an eye both on the applications that already exist and those that are emerging or are likely to emerge in the next two decades. doi: 10.3389/fnsys.2014.00025 Pub Med Abstract | Cross Ref Full Text | Google Scholar Krause, B., Márquez-Ruiz, J., and Cohen Kadosh, R. The effect of transcranial direct current stimulation: a role for cortical excitation/inhibition balance? Particularly, we consider applications in the areas of communication, cognitive enhancement, memory, attention monitoring/enhancement, situation awareness and complex problem solving, and we look at what fraction of the population might benefit from such technologies and at the demands they impose in terms of user training.

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