The committee includes a member from the patient advocacy community. The committee met in person five times from April 2010 through February 2011 and conducted additional deliberations by conference call. These events contributing to subsequent cancers may occur spontaneously as a by-product of errors in normal processes, such as DNA replication, or potentially through effects of environmental exposures.
The committee includes a member from the patient advocacy community. The committee met in person five times from April 2010 through February 2011 and conducted additional deliberations by conference call. These events contributing to subsequent cancers may occur spontaneously as a by-product of errors in normal processes, such as DNA replication, or potentially through effects of environmental exposures.Tags: Rhetorical Analysis Essay On The Great GatsbyExample Of Solving A ProblemRole Of Media In The Society EssayMarket Segmentation EssaysSolving Communication Problems At WorkEssay Titles GeneratorHistorical Fiction Creative Writing Assignments
This report presents the results of a study commissioned to review the current evidence on environmental risk factors for breast cancer, consider gene–environment interactions in breast cancer, explore evidence-based actions that might reduce the risk of breast cancer, and recommend research in these areas.
STUDY CHARGE AND COMMITTEE ACTIVITIES This study resulted from a request to the Institute of Medicine (IOM) by Susan G.
But there are long-standing and still unresolved concerns that aspects of diet, ambient chemicals, or other potentially modifiable environmental exposures may be contributing to high rates of breast cancer.
At present, a large but incomplete body of evidence is available on the relationship between breast cancer and the wide variety of external factors that can be said to comprise the environment.
More helpful would be identifying modifiable risk factors.
For example, the publication of findings from the Women’s Health Initiative (Writing Group for the Women’s Health Initiative Investigators, 2002) confirming earlier indications that estrogen–progestin HT was contributing to an increase in the risk of postmenopausal breast cancer was followed by a rapid reduction in use of HT and in the incidence of invasive breast cancer. The Statement of Task for the IOM study appears in Box 1-1. The members of the study committee were selected to contribute expertise in epidemiology, toxicology, risk assessment, biostatistics, molecular carcinogenesis, gene–environment interactions, communication of health messages, environmental health science, exposure assessment, and health care. After lung cancer, it is the second most common cause of mortality from cancer for women, with about 39,520 deaths expected in the United States in 2011. Another 450 breast cancer deaths are expected among men in 2011 (ACS, 2011). Information on interactions between genetic susceptibility and environmental factors is particularly sparse. In contrast, knowledge of the complexity of breast cancer is growing, with the characterization of multiple tumor subtypes; the possibility _________________ Loeb and Nishimura (2010, p. As in most types of adult cancer, breast cancer is thought to develop as a result of accumulated damage induced by both internal and external triggers resulting in initial carcinogenic events. The affected cells and tissues then progress through multiple stages, with accompanying alterations in the surrounding tissue likely playing a role in whether the damage leads to a cancer. During these meetings and calls, the committee reviewed and discussed the existing research literature on the topics central to its charge and developed and revised this report. At three of its meetings, the committee held public sessions during which it heard presentations by researchers, representatives of advocacy organizations, and members of the public.