Chemosynthesis Video

Chemosynthesis Video-19
Water was collected into 2-L polycarbonate piston-style syringe samplers mounted on a tethered ROV (Eastern Oceanics, Inc.) using an articulated arm outfitted with a thermistor probe at the end to measure the temperature of the water as it was collected (Aguilar et al., 2002).

Water was collected into 2-L polycarbonate piston-style syringe samplers mounted on a tethered ROV (Eastern Oceanics, Inc.) using an articulated arm outfitted with a thermistor probe at the end to measure the temperature of the water as it was collected (Aguilar et al., 2002). Using a checkvalve system, each piston sample was rinsed with 300–500 m L of vent sample prior to filling.

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Reduced sulfur compounds (hydrogen sulfide, thiosulfate, sulfite) were quantified by a scaled-up modification of the microbore high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method of Vairavamurthy and Mopper (1990), using dithio-bis-nitropyridine (DTNP) derivatization.

Samples were collected in PP syringes and after rinsing, exactly 10 m L were squeezed through 0.2 μm nylon syringe filters (Whatman Acrodisc) into acid-washed 20 m L liquid scintillation vials (LSV). nov., an extremely thermophilic, facultatively heterotrophic, sulfur- oxidizing bacterium from Yellowstone National Park, and emended descriptions of the genus Sulfurihydrogenibium, Sulfurihydrogenibium subterraneum and Sulfurihydrogenibium azorense.

Total DIC was analyzed by the Teflon-membrane flow injection method of Hall and Aller (1992), in which the sipper tube was inserted through the three-way valve and the syringe plunger used to prevent formation of headspace during injection.

For deep samples from Stevenson Island, unavoidable degassing effects were reduced by shaking the syringe thoroughly just before sipping, as the method measures all forms of CO including dissolved gas.

In contrast, cool vent water with low chemosynthetic activity yielded predominantly phylotypes related to freshwater Actinobacterial clusters with a cosmopolitan distribution.

In-depth geophysical and geochemical exploration and lake floor mapping of Yellowstone Lake, the largest Alpine Lake in the United States, has revealed numerous sublacustrine hot vents and hydrothermal features in geothermally active areas on the lake bottom (Klump et al., 1988, 1995; Remsen et al., 1990; Morgan et al., 2003a, b). Using a positive displacement repeating pipette, the DTNP reagent was added, the vial capped with a cone-seal cap, and mixed vigorously before storing in a cooler with ice. After return to the laboratory, the precipitated unreacted DTNP was removed with another syringe and nylon filter during injection into the 100-μL HPLC sample loop. The third and hottest water sample, Stevenson Island 72, comes from a deep trench east of Stevenson Island in the central portion of the lake, where small, well-developed hydrothermal vents coalesce along northwest-trending deep fissures that reach maximally 133 m depth, the deepest point in the lake (Morgan et al., 2003b). The fourth sample, West Thumb Canyon 129, represents hot vent water from a sublacustrine explosion crater in the western part of West Thumb basin, in the westernmost part of the lake (Morgan et al., 2003b). Here, we present results of a preliminary 16S r RNA gene clone library survey of the bacterial communities in five different thermal vent locations in Yellowstone Lake with distinct chemical signatures and distinct temperature-dependent chemosynthetic rates. The 16S r RNA gene clone libraries indicate the existence of distinct chemosynthetic bacterial communities, dominated either by Gammaproteobacteria affiliated with the mesophilic sulfur-oxidizing genus Thiovirga, or by phylotypes most closely related to cultured species and strains of the extremely thermophilic Aquificales. Hydrothermal springs and gas fumaroles in Yellowstone Lake, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming. In contrast to the well-studied photosynthetic and chemosynthetic aerial hot spring communities of Yellowstone Park terrestrial habitats (Ward et al., 1998; Spear et al., 2005), systematic analyses of these Yellowstone Lake hydrothermal microbial communities are in their early stages, but have already demonstrated the potential for autotrophic, thermophilic chemosynthetic microbial communities. For example, the vents at Steamboat Point and Mary Bay at the northern edge of the lake, and deep-water vents off Stevenson island in the center of the lake, harbor chemosynthetic bacteria that assimilate dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in the dark at rates typically 0.08–0.5 μM C h (Cuhel et al., 2002). Subsamples of 150–310 m L volume (Table 1) were used for filtration and cell capture on 0.22 μm polycarbonate filters. The filters were frozen at −80°C until DNA isolation in the laboratory in Chapel Hill, by phenol/chloroform extraction (Teske et al., 1996).


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