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Research on these effects has mainly been done by using two major contexts of education.They are submersion and transitional bilingual and the immersion programmes.This is the situation for the people who develop to bilinguals in their adult years.
Submersion leads to subtractive bilingualism as immersion leads to additive bilingualism.
The French immersion that is the method in Canada has been a case study to test the effect on language competence in both languages, as has been the case with submersion cases in the US.
It has been found out that submersion has negative effects on the personal development of the young minority children.
This is done by eliminating their very important first language.
However, they are able to express themselves in one language.
The children who can fall in thus category are basically those who have had a very big introduction to a second language as they grow in their lives but have had rare opportunities to use the language.This has been found to erode their original cultural identity thus putting their academic future at risk.The involved ministry has come up with transitional programmes to tackle the issue.Another form of bilingualism is referred to as sequential bilingualism. It refers to the art of learning the second language voluntarily after well mastering the first.The first language in this case is well established as the main form of communication and thus the second can be referred to as a bonus.In this new plan, transition is done in the way instruction is carried out.The children are instructed in their first language in this case, Spanish.The most major factor that differentiates the two factors is a social in kind.In the case of subtractive bilingualism, it can be illustrated by a smaller number of children who have to adapt to a new language, as it is the culture.Submersion programmes are common phenomena in the US while immersion is the most common on Canada.There have been many questions about the outcomes of these programmes to the cognitive ability of the individual.