Executive order 9066, signed by FDR after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, forced thousands of Nisei and Issei to be sent to detention centers (Doc. Families were forced to live in limited quarters with no freedoms. as the fear of espionage and sabotage seemed to be very real in places like California after America was attacked by Japan (Doc. Therefore, although African Americans and women were beginning to take on the identity as full citizens, Americans of Japanese descent did not.This action was declared constitutional by the Supreme Court in the 1944 decision Korematsu v. As the constitutionality of the detention of a group of Americans was determined, the constitutionality of censorship was not.
And as the war ended, Americans expected their freedoms to be restored.
While Americans held proudly to their identity, it was clear that they were willing to give up some of the ideals they held as part of their identity and were also willing to expand the scope of who was considered an American during a time of national emergency.
Directions: Question 1 is based on the accompanying documents.
The documents have been edited for the purpose of this exercise.
While still having to serve in segregated units that had white officers, thousands of African American men served proudly.
An example of their ability to fight well was demonstrated by the all-black Tuskegee Airmen who flew many missions with distinction (Doc. Although inequality lasted for the duration of the war, the foundations for a modern civil rights movement were being created as acceptance of African Americans into traditional roles in the military began to extend to other aspects of American life.
Women’s identity as Americans thus was changing, as they became breadwinners and also gained respect as equals.
While African Americans and women were becoming more identified as equals and as “Americans,” Japanese Americans were forced to lose what little American identity they had gained.
Most factories employed white men exclusively as most unionized jobs were held by whites. Philip Randolph, president of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters, started a movement to allow African Americans to gain access to jobs preparing for the war effort. Randolph threatened a “March on Washington” if “loyal Negro citizens” were not granted the right to work in the common effort to defeat Nazi Germany (Doc. President Franklin Roosevelt responded with an executive order to require that all industries with government contracts hire African Americans.
As the United States entered the war, the call for soldiers increased, and millions of men volunteered to fight to defeat Germany and Japan, including African Americans.