Glaser Critical Thinking

Glaser Critical Thinking-16
The list of core critical thinking skills includes observation, interpretation, analysis, inference, evaluation, explanation, and metacognition.

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His method of questioning is now known as "Socratic questioning" and is the best known critical thinking teaching strategy.

In his mode of questioning, Socrates highlighted the need for thinking for clarity and logical consistency.

He established the importance of asking deep questions that probe profoundly into thinking before we accept ideas as worthy of belief.

He established the importance of seeking evidence, closely examining reasoning and assumptions, analyzing basic concepts, and tracing out implications not only of what is said but of what is done as well.

It followed a philosophy where the thinker was removed from the train of thought and the connections and the analysis of the connect was devoid of any bias of the thinker.

Kerry Walters describes this ideology in his essay Beyond Logicism in Critical Thinking, "A logistic approach to critical thinking conveys the message to students that thinking is legitimate only when it conforms to the procedures of informal (and, to a lesser extent, formal) logic and that the good thinker necessarily aims for styles of examination and appraisal that are analytical, abstract, universal, and objective.Socrates asked people questions to reveal their irrational thinking or lack of reliable knowledge.Socrates demonstrated that having authority does not ensure accurate knowledge.In the ‘second wave’ of critical thinking, as defined by Kerry S. 1), many authors moved away from the logocentric mode of critical thinking that the ‘first wave’ privileged, especially in institutions of higher learning.Walters summarizes logicism as "the unwarranted assumption that good thinking is reducible to logical thinking".This model of thinking has become so entrenched in conventional academic wisdom that many educators accept it as canon".The adoption of these principals parallels themselves with the increasing reliance on a quantitative understanding of the world.Socrates established the fact that one cannot depend upon those in "authority" to have sound knowledge and insight.He demonstrated that persons may have power and high position and yet be deeply confused and irrational.κριτικός = kritikos = "critic") derives from the word critic and implies a critique; it identifies the intellectual capacity and the means "of judging", "of judgement", "for judging", and of being "able to discern".2,500 years ago who discovered by a method of probing questioning that people could not rationally justify their confident claims to knowledge.

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