Guide To Critical Thinking

This popular pocket-size guide empowers readers with critical thinking tools based on the groundbreaking work of Richard Paul and Linda Elder.This bestselling volume in the Thinker’s Guide Library provides students, educators, and professionals with an authoritative problem-solving framework essential for every aspect of life.

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1 The Miniature Guide to Critical Thinking Concepts and Tools Contents Why Critical Thinking?

��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 2 The Elements of Thought ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 3 A Checklist for Reasoning��������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 4 Questions Using the Elements of Thought������������������������������������������������� 6 Three Levels of Thought������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 7 Universal Intellectual Standards��������������������������������������������������������������������� 8 Template for Analyzing the Logic of Articles and Textbooks�������������11 Criteria for Evaluating Reasoning�����������������������������������������������������������������12 Essential Intellectual Traits �����������������������������������������������������������������������������13 Three Kinds of Questions���������������������������������������������������������������������������������16 A Template for Problem-Solving�������������������������������������������������������������������17 Analyzing and Assessing Research�������������������������������������������������������������18 What Critical Thinkers Routinely Do�����������������������������������������������������������19 Stages of Critical Thinking Development�������������������������������������������������20 The Problem of Egocentric Thinking�����������������������������������������������������������21 The Problem of Sociocentric Thinking�������������������������������������������������������22 Envisioning Critical Societies�������������������������������������������������������������������������23 Fifth Edition © 2008 Foundation for Critical Thinking Press The Miniature Guide to Critical Thinking Concepts and Tools Why Critical Thinking?

Yet the quality of our life and that of what we produce, make, or build depends precisely on the quality of our thought.

Shoddy thinking is costly, both in money and in quality of life.

The Result: A well cultivated critical thinker: • raises vital questions and problems, formulating them clearly and precisely; • gathers and assesses relevant information, using abstract ideas to interpret it effectively; • comes to well-reasoned conclusions and solutions, testing them against relevant criteria and standards; • thinks openmindedly within alternative systems of thought, recognizing and assessing, as need be, their assumptions, implications, and practical consequences; and • communicates effectively with others in figuring out solutions to complex problems.

Critical thinking is, in short, self-directed, self-disciplined, self-monitored, and self-­corrective thinking.Excellence in thought, however, must be systematically cultivated.A Definition: Critical thinking is the art of analyzing and evaluating thinking with a view to ­improving it.If you own the copyright to this book and it is wrongfully on our website, we offer a simple DMCA procedure to remove your content from our site. Report copyright / DMCA form Speci al Ed ition on rence e f n o C ional e ncing th rnat Annou al Inte ing nnu l Think y a c i t i 28th A r C ele at Berk iversit ear Un N July 19 008 – 24, 2 lifornia y of Ca The Miniature Guide to Critical Thinking C oncepts and T ools By Dr. Linda Elder The Foundation for Critical Thinking [email protected] Client: FCT Proof 5 Proof 6 Proof 7 Proof 8 Project Title: Concepts/Tools — Conf ©2008 (07-069) 12/3/07 a 12/3/07 p 12/3/07 p 12/4/07 p Please join us for the 28th Annual International Conference on Critical Thinking Near University of California at Berkeley July 19 – 24, 2008 For more than 25 years, the Foundation For Critical Thinking has emphasized the importance of teaching for critical thinking in a strong, rather than a weak, sense.We are committed to a clear and substantive concept of critical thinking (rather than one that is ill-defined); a concept that interfaces well wwith the disciplines, that applies directly to the needs of everyday and professional life, that emphasizes the affective as well as the cognitive dimensions of thought.© 2008 Foundation for Critical Thinking Press The Miniature Guide to Critical Thinking Concepts and Tools The Elements of Thought Point of View frames of reference, perspectives, orientations Implications and Consequences Purpose goals, objectives Elements of Thought Assumptions presuppositions, axioms, taking for granted Concepts theories, definitions, laws, principles, models Question at issue problem, issue Information data, facts, observations, experiences Interpretation and Inference conclusions, solutions Used With Sensitivity to Universal Intellectual Standards Clarity  Accuracy  Depth  Breadth  Significance Precision Relevance © 2008 Foundation for Critical Thinking Press The Miniature Guide to Critical Thinking Concepts and Tools A Checklist for Reasoning 1) All reasoning has a PURPOSE. • • • • State the question at issue clearly and precisely.Express the question in several ways to clarify its meaning and scope. Distinguish questions that have definitive answers from those that are a matter of opinion and from those that require consideration of multiple viewpoints. • Clearly identify your assumptions and determine whether they are justifiable. • Seek other points of view and identify their strengths as well as weaknesses.• Consider how your assumptions are shaping your point of view. • Strive to be fairminded in evaluating all points of view.© 2008 Foundation for Critical Thinking Press The Miniature Guide to Critical Thinking Concepts and Tools 5) All reasoning is based on DATA, INFORMATION and EVIDENCE. Implications/ Consequences: If someone accepted my position, what would be the implications? Points of View: From what point of view am I looking at this issue? © 2008 Foundation for Critical Thinking Press The Miniature Guide to Critical Thinking Concepts and Tools Three Levels of Thought Level 3: Highest Order Thinking t&YQMJDJUMZSFøFDUJWFt)JHIFTUTLJMMMFWFM t3PVUJOFVTFPGDSJUJDBMUIJOLJOHUPPMTJO analyzing and assessing thinking t$POTJTUFOUMZGBJS Level 2: Higher Order Thinking t4FMFDUJWFMZSFøFDUJWFt)JHITLJMMMFWFM t-BDLTDSJUJDBMUIJOLJOHWPDBCVMBSZ t*ODPOTJTUFOUMZGBJS NBZCF skilled in sophistry Level 1: Lower Order Thinking t6OSFøFDUJWFt-PXUPNJYFETLJMMMFWFM t'SFRVFOUMZSFMJFTPOHVUJOUVJUJPO t-BSHFMZTFMGTFSWJOH TFMGEFDFJWFE Lower order thinking is often distinguished from higher order thinking. If a statement is unclear, we cannot determine whether it is accurate or relevant.In the same spirit, all conference sessions will be interactive—integrating reading, writing, and teaching as modes for internalizing the ideas.To register, visit our website: call toll-free 800.833.3645.


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