Reasons for the increased risk of contracting HIV in these particular sociodemographic groups may include lack of HIV and substance use education, lack of access to healthcare, discrimination, and increased stigma .
Furthermore, intravenous drug user (IDU) populations have different prevention needs than non-intravenous drug user (NIDU) populations.
MSM who are also in the IDU population further have been reported to have increased violence, which should be considered in HIV prevention efforts .
Therefore, the IDU and NIDU populations should be separated to clearly define the best intervention methods for these differing groups at risk of contracting HIV.
All IDU, and 89% of NIDU, studies used explanatory and behavior-change theoretical models to guide selection of intervention mechanisms.
Reduction in frequency of risky sexual behaviors were observed in 33% IDU and 64% NIDU studies, where 56% of IDU studies effectively increased drug use-related hygiene and 67% decreased frequency of injections.Behavioral Interventions are needed to prevent HIV in substance users, which is associated with higher risk for contracting HIV via unprotected sexual intercourse or syringe-based exposure.We reviewed universal HIV prevention interventions targeting intravenous drug users (IDUs) and non-IDUs (NIDUs) to identify which prevention interventions are the most effective at reducing HIV transmission risk among IDU’s and NIDU’s and identify gaps in the literature.We reviewed the literature regarding universal HIV prevention interventions in both intravenous drug users and non-intravenous drug users to identify interventions most effective at reducing HIV risk, as well as to identify any pertinent limitations or gaps in the literature.Our review aims to highlight intervention models, which may be useful in the development and adoption of new interventions on a greater scale.In addition drug testing procedures and associated legislation regarding drug-impaired driving in the different EU Member States were described and the issues raised by such testing reviewed.The outcomes of the study included a scientific literature review and annotated bibliography on the relation between drug use, impaired driving and traffic accidents.Future studies should include HIV testing and measurement of HIV seroconversion to fully elucidate intervention effects.In the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), the incidence of new human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) diagnoses continues to remain high, with certain sociodemographic groups experiencing increased rates of HIV compared to the general population.Additionally, Hispanic injection drug users have a significantly higher estimated rate of HIV infection as compared to white non-Hispanic injection drug users, 4.9 per 100,000 people in the Hispanic population versus 0.9 per 100,000, respectively .In addition, men who have sex with men (MSM) are at increased risk of substance-use related HIV infection, with 53% of substance use-related HIV cases comprised of MSM .