When the empire began to disintegrate, the power of the state over the church declined; and under the Ottoman sultans the situation was reversed to the extent that the patriarchs of Constantinople were given political power over the laity of their churches.
In Russia and the USSRIn Russia the Orthodox Church was quite dominated by the state.
Better still the separation of the state from the clutches of religious beliefs has the propensity to significantly affect way of life as well as the rate of development in a society.
In my opinion however, I sincerely believe that the church (by extension, religion) should be separated from the secular state.
The principal contention was over investiture, but underlying it was violent disagreement as to the proper distribution of power; theories ranged from the belief that emperor or king, as ruler by divine right, should control church as well as state (a theory known also as caesaropapism) to the belief that the pope, as vicar of God on earth, should have the right of supervision over the state.
The centuries-long struggle was highlighted by such bitter clashes as those between Pope Gregory VII and Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV, between Pope Innocent III and Emperor Frederick II and King Philip II of France, and between Pope Boniface VIII and King Philip IV of France.As a result, the Roman Catholic Church invariably began to lose its pole position in the scheme of things in an already divided Europe.church and state, the relationship between the religion or religions of a nation and the civil government of that nation, especially the relationship between the Christian church and various civil governments.In the West Early Years to the Reformation In the West different factors affected church and state relations than in the East.After AD 400 there was no central power in the West, but there was a central ecclesiastical power, the see of Rome, which had claimed primacy from the earliest times.It is worthy of note however that the Roman Catholic Church tried albeit unsuccessfully to placate the breakaway by instituting a “counter-Reformation” but this only achieved a cleansing of the church internally without achieving much in its most important mandate to prevent the protestant breakaway.Consequently, Europe was enmeshed in bloody religious war largely between forces loyal to the papacy in Rome and those who sympathized with the runaway protestant movement.The conflict of Guelphs and Ghibellines began as part of the imperial-papal struggle.The nearest the papacy ever came to Erastianism was in the period during which the popes resided at Avignon, where they were virtually at the beck and call of the French kings.The patterns of relation between church and state remain a living issue in today's society.In the British Isles The most extreme form of Erastianism is seen in the Church of England (see England, Church of), of which the monarch is supreme head.