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In industry, synthesis is used to make products in large quantity.chemical synthesis usually involves the breaking of existing bonds and the formation of new ones.Synthesis of a complex molecule may involve a considerable number of individual reactions leading in sequence from available starting materials to the desired end product.This can easily be done using an electrophilic aromatic substitution, something you have learned in school when you learned about the nitration of benzene.
Multistep synthesis is the process of taking a readily available compound (one you can buy) and converting it into the compound you need using chemical reactions.
Multistep syntheses require more than one step (reaction), and so one or more intermediate compounds are formed along the way.
These compounds serve as synthetically useful building blocks for further derivatization and iterative benzannulation to access sterically crowded substrates (Chapter 2).
Despite the high efficiency of this reaction, phenylene ethynylene macrocycles prove to be too rigid to undergo complete benzannulation (Chapter 3).
For example, paracetamol (IUPAC: N-(4-hydroxyphenyl) ethanamide), a relatively simple molecule, can be prepared in one, two or three steps depending on the starting material you choose (what chemists call starting material is the very first chemical compound they will use to start a synthesis, the one they will use in the first step (or reaction) of the synthesis they want to make).
Taxol (an anti-cancer drug) is a natural compound with a very complex structure whose total synthesis requires at least 40 steps.
You will learn why at university The -OH group has a 2,4-directing effect (also called ortho/para).
That means that incoming groups (like the nitro group in our paracetamol example) will go into the 2- position (next door to the -OH group) or the 4- position (opposite the -OH group).
Chemists synthesize chemical compounds that occur in nature in order to gain a better understanding of their structures.
Synthesis also enables chemists to produce compounds that do not form naturally for research purposes.